Because high blood pressure doesn’t cause symptoms, once you’ve been diagnosed with it, it’s critical to measure your blood pressure regularly. This is true even if you’re taking blood pressure medication. And whether you’ve got high or low blood pressure, tracking your systolic and diastolic numbers is a great way to gauge how well lifestyle changes or medications are working.
Blood pressure is measured with a blood pressure cuff (sphygmomanometer). This may be done using a stethoscope and a cuff and gauge or by an automatic machine. It is a routine part of the physical examination and one of the vital signs often recorded for a patient visit. Other vital signs include pulse rate, respiratory rate (breathing rate), temperature, and weight.
Diabetes can upset the balance between HDL and LDL cholesterol levels. People with diabetes tend to have LDL particles that stick to arteries and damage blood vessel walls more easily. Glucose (a type of sugar) attaches to lipoproteins (a cholesterol-protein package that enables cholesterol to travel through blood). Sugarcoated LDL remains in the bloodstream longer and may lead to the formation of plaque. People with diabetes tend to have low HDL and high triglyceride (another kind of blood fat) levels. Both of these boost the risk of heart and artery disease.
Isolated systolic hypertension can be caused by underlying conditions such as artery stiffness, an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) or diabetes. Occasionally, it can be caused by heart valve problems. It is the most common form of high blood pressure in people older than age 65, but it is possible for younger people to be affected by this type of high blood pressure as well.
In fact, it seems that the presence of high blood cholesterol may actually predict a future presence of high blood pressure. That’s what researchers reported in a 2005 study in Hypertension. They analyzed data from 3,110 men who had not been diagnosed with hypertension or cardiovascular disease at the start, and followed them for about 14 years. Just over 1,000 of them developed hypertension by the end of the study.
But it’s not all bad news. Yes, hypertension contributes to a lot of serious conditions, but blood pressure treatment options are very effective. And the first step, of course, is knowing if you have high blood pressure. You can check your blood pressure for free at many pharmacies nationwide. CVS “Minute Clinics” and Walgreens Blood Pressure screening both offer in-store blood pressure test.
For a normal reading, your blood pressure needs to show a top number (systolic pressure) that’s between 90 and less than 120 and a bottom number (diastolic pressure) that’s between 60 and less than 80. The American Heart Association (AHA) considers blood pressure to be within the normal range when both your systolic and diastolic numbers are in these ranges.
You can have high blood pressure, or hypertension, and still feel just fine. That's because high blood pressure often does not cause signs of illness that you can see or feel. But, high blood pressure, sometimes called "the silent killer," is very common in older people and a major health problem. If high blood pressure isn't controlled with lifestyle changes and medicine, it can lead to stroke, heart disease, eye problems, kidney failure, and other health problems. High blood pressure can also cause shortness of breath during light physical activity or exercise.
SPEAKER: Whether you have high blood pressure or want to avoid getting it, cut back on these types of foods to make your heart happier. If it's full of saturated fat take a step back. Eat less butter, whole cheese, regular salad dressing, fried goodies, and fatty meat. Also steer clear of foods with artificial trans fat. This lab-made flavor booster is bad for your heart. Check the label for word like hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated. Next, avoid sodium overload. There can be lots of it hiding in foods that may not taste super salty, such as bread, cake, and canned veggies. Watch out for the usual sodium suspects too, like pizza, soup, cold cuts, and fast food. Finally, sip smartly if you drink alcohol. Limit yourself to one drink a day if you're a woman and two if you're a man. To take the next step toward better blood pressure, fill up on whole grains, fruits, veggies and lean protein.
Diastolic pressure is the force exerted by the blood on the walls of arteries as it flows through these blood vessels between heartbeats. In IDH, the diastolic pressure is generally elevated because tiny arteries, called arterioles, in the body are narrower than usual. This compresses the blood flowing through the arterioles, thus raising the pressure.
Obesity: As body weight increases, the blood pressure rises. Obesity is defined as having a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m. A BMI of 25-30 kg/m is considered overweight (BMI=weight in pounds x 703/ height in inches). Being overweight increases the risk of high blood pressure. Healthcare professionals recommend that all individuals who are obese and have high blood pressure lose weight until they are within 15% of their healthy body weight.
As you get older, high blood pressure, especially isolated systolic hypertension, is more common and can increase your risk of serious health problems. Treatment, especially if you have other medical conditions, requires ongoing evaluation and discussions with your doctor to strike the best balance of reducing risks and maintaining a good quality of life.
Kidney artery aneurysm. An aneurysm is a bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. When it occurs in an artery leading to the kidney, it's known as a kidney (renal) artery aneurysm. One potential cause is atherosclerosis, which weakens and damages the artery wall. Over time, high blood pressure in a weakened artery can cause a section to enlarge and form a bulge — the aneurysm. Aneurysms can rupture and cause life-threatening internal bleeding.
Heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular (blood vessel) diseases are among the leading cause of death and now kill more than 800,000 adults in the US each year. Of these, 150,000 are younger than age 65. These diseases are also two of the leading causes of health disparities in the US. Treatment of these diseases accounts for 1 in every 6 US health dollars spent. Two main reasons people have heart disease or stroke are high blood pressure* and cholesterol, which are common, deadly, and preventable. Nearly 2 out of 3 adults with high cholesterol and about half of adults with high blood pressure don’t have their condition yet under control. Clearly, other steps are needed to gain control of these health risks.
Not enough info for you? Geek out on blood pressure and hypertension with these studies and stats from the most trusted sources on the interwebs. And if you have any questions or you think we missed something important, leave a comment or book a consultation with me or one of these trained medical professionals and we’ll answer your questions and concerns in no time.
Prehypertension: When your blood pressure is slightly higher than the normal 120/80, but lower than 140/90, it’s called prehypertension. Prehypertension can raise your risk for heart disease and stroke, so doctors will often recommend lifestyle changes, such as exercise and healthier eating habits, to help lower your blood pressure to the normal range.
A previous study evaluating the medical records of over a million people reported that while elevations in systolic blood pressure were indeed linked to a higher risk of heart disease-related chest pain as well as strokes, high diastolic blood pressure was liked to a great risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm, a condition where the main artery found the abdominal cavity leaks or bursts creating a life threating situation.
Echocardiogram is an ultrasound examination of the heart It is used to evaluate the anatomy and the function of the heart. A cardiologist is required to interpret this test and can evaluate the heart muscle and determine how thick it is, whether it moves appropriately, and how efficiently it can push blood out to the rest of the body. The echocardiogram can also assess heart valves, looking for narrowing (stenosis) and leaking (insufficiency or regurgitation). A chest X-ray may be used as a screening test to look for heart size, the shape of the aorta, and to assess the lungs.
High blood pressure (hypertension) is very common and the share of both men and women with high blood pressure increases steadily with age.High blood pressure sneaks up on you. Except at extreme levels, high blood pressure is usually a silent condition causing no symptoms, so it is important to have regular blood pressure checks.Many things are thought to help bring about high blood pressure, including several changes in the heart and blood vessels.Why is high blood pressure important?Having high blood pressure increases your risk of a variety of health problems. Some of the complications of having high blood pressure include:an increased risk of heart and blood vessel disease – the higher the blood pressure, the higher the risk of angina, heart attack and stroke;heart failure; andkidney damage.How is blood pressure measured?When the heart pumps, it produces pressure inside the arteries and moves the blood forward. This is called systolic pressure. Then the heart relaxes as it fills again and the pressure in your arteries falls. This is called diastolic pressure.Blood pressure readings are given as 2 numbers – systolic pressure over diastolic pressure. The pressure is measured in millimetres of mercury (mmHg).As a general guide,optimal blood pressure is considered to be less than 120 mmHg (systolic pressure) over 80 mmHg (diastolic pressure) — written as 120/80;normal blood pressure is between 120/80 and 129/84; andhigh-normal blood pressure is between 130/85 and 139/89.What is high blood pressure?High blood pressure, or hypertension, means that the systolic or diastolic pressure or both are above the normal range. A reading above 140/90 mmHg is usually considered to be ‘hypertension’, although hypertension is further divided up by doctors into mild, moderate or severe depending on the blood pressure reading.The grades of hypertension are as follows.Mild (grade 1) hypertension: from 140/90 mmHg up to 159/99 mmHg.Moderate (grade 2) hypertension: from 160/100 mmHg up to 179/109 mmHg.Severe (grade 3) hypertension: 180/110 mmHg or more.When deciding whether your blood pressure reading is of concern or not, your doctor will take various factors into account, including your age, cholesterol level, smoking status and presence of other conditions such as diabetes, previous stroke, heart problems or kidney disease.Your doctor will also want to check your blood pressure on more than one occasion before deciding whether you have high blood pressure or not. They may ask you to check your blood pressure at home or wear a 24-hour blood pressure monitoring device. Home blood pressure machines can be purchased or hired from some pharmacies.It is important to remember that our blood pressure rises at certain times, and that is not necessarily a bad thing. During exercise, for example, the pulse rate and blood pressure increase in order to carry extra blood and oxygen to the muscles. When you finish exercising, the blood pressure returns to normal.Blood pressure also rises with excitement, anger or fear but this usually does not last long.How do I know if I have high blood pressure?Unless it is very high, high blood pressure usually has no symptoms. The only way to know if your blood pressure is raised is to get it measured.Every adult should have their blood pressure checked regularly. Your doctor will advise you how often. This depends on your age, your general health and whether you are taking any herbal products, supplements or medicines, including the contraceptive pill.Some people may experience symptoms related to conditions causing or caused by high blood pressure. If you have high blood pressure, your doctor will check for these symptoms.Your doctor will also ask about the health of your family members and whether any member in your family has been diagnosed with high blood pressure. They will perform a physical examination looking for any problems related to high blood pressure.What causes high blood pressure?In most people, high blood pressure results from the interaction of numerous genetic (inherited) and lifestyle factors. This is sometimes called primary or essential hypertension.A small proportion of people have secondary high blood pressure, which is high blood pressure that is caused by a specific underlying condition, such as kidney disease or hormonal problems.Other risk factors include:being overweight;smoking;not getting enough physical activity;having a high alcohol intake; andeating a diet high in salt (sodium chloride).High blood pressure treatmentsHigh blood pressure can be treated with lifestyle measures and medicines. Your doctor will recommend treatment for you based on:your blood pressure readings;whether you have other conditions related to high blood pressure; andyour overall risk of cardiovascular disease.Lifestyle measuresMaking some adjustments to your lifestyle can help lower blood pressure and improve your overall health. Lifestyle measures are the only treatment needed to control blood pressure in some people.Achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Being overweight often means a higher blood pressure.Eat a wide variety of nutritious foods, with lots of vegetables, fruit and grains. Eat moderate amounts of fish, skinless chicken, lean meat cuts, eggs, nuts, legumes and reduced fat dairy foods. Avoid foods high in saturated fat (e.g. fried foods, biscuits, chips) and replace with foods containing mainly polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats (e.g. oils, spreads, avocado, nuts and seeds).Eat less salt: use herbs, spices, fruit and vinegar for flavouring and dressings; choose low salt pre-prepared foods; avoid pickled and takeaway foods which have a high salt content.Get regular physical activity. Strive to put a little bit more activity in your day at every opportunity. Aim to accumulate at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity most days of the week. Walking, cycling and swimming are ideal. Find activities you enjoy so you can keep them up.Cut down on alcohol. Healthy men and women should have no more than 2 standard alcoholic drinks a day. Also, aim for at least 2 alcohol-free days per week.Stop smoking: quitting reduces blood pressure as well as your risk of heart attack and stroke.Medicines for high blood pressureMedicines can help control high blood pressure but do not cure it. Usually blood pressure medicines need to be taken long-term.The main types of medicines that are used to treat uncomplicated high blood pressure include:angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors);angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs);calcium channel blockers; andthiazide diuretics.The type of medicine that your doctor prescribes will depend on:your age;whether you have conditions associated with high blood pressure;whether you have other health problems or take other medicines;the side effects of different medicines; andthe cost of different medicines.To control blood pressure successfully, you may need 2 or more medicines, each working in a different way. We all react differently to medicines, so it may take some time to find the combinations and doses that suit you best.It is important to tell your doctor about any other health products you are taking — this includes eyedrops, ointments, over-the-counter preparations, herbs and supplements.It is also important to follow your doctor’s instructions about taking blood pressure medicines.You cannot tell how your blood pressure is doing by the way you feel. Regular check-ups are essential and it is unwise to change your own dose of tablets.If your blood pressure is not responding well to treatments, your doctor may refer you to a cardiologist (specialist in heart conditions and high blood pressure).Side effectsLike all medicines, those for high blood pressure may occasionally cause side effects. These vary among medicines and from person to person, and often decrease with time or by your doctor adjusting your dosage.If your blood pressure gets too low on the medicine, you may feel faint or dizzy, particularly when you stand up. Try standing up slowly to reduce this, and stay close to the bed or chair for a moment in case you need to sit or lie down again. If this side effect continues, see your doctor for review.You should let your doctor know about any reactions you have to the medicines. With the range of blood pressure medicines now available, it is nearly always possible to find one that will give you minimal or no side effects.Check-upsIf you have had high blood pressure, you need to have regular checks throughout your life. This is true even if you are not currently receiving any treatment, or if you are being treated by diet and lifestyle changes or with medicines.Your doctor will advise you about how frequently you should have your blood pressure checked, but generally speaking it will be at least every 6 months.In the early stages of treatment, you may need to be seen weekly or fortnightly, but once your blood pressure is controlled, checks may be spaced out to once every 3 or 6 months.If you have high blood pressure, it’s also worth being checked for other conditions that may further increase your risk of cardiovascular disease, such as diabetes and high cholesterol.High blood pressure often runs in families. Suggest to others in your family that they also have their blood pressure measured. Last Reviewed: 8 February 2017
The DASH Diet can help lower your blood pressure and cholesterol levels, which is good for your heart. In fact, DASH stands for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, or high blood pressure. Even if you don’t have high blood pressure, the DASH Diet is worth a look. It may help you lose weight because it’s a healthier way of eating. You won’t feel deprived. You’ll have lots of vegetables, fruits, and low-fat dairy products while cutting back on fats, cholesterol, and sweets.
Stroke. A stroke occurs when part of your brain is deprived of oxygen and nutrients, causing brain cells to die. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to stroke by damaging and weakening your brain's blood vessels, causing them to narrow, rupture or leak. High blood pressure can also cause blood clots to form in the arteries leading to your brain, blocking blood flow and potentially causing a stroke.
Women may have sexual dysfunction as a side effect of high blood pressure, as well. High blood pressure can reduce blood flow to your vagina. For some women, this leads to a decrease in sexual desire or arousal, vaginal dryness, or difficulty achieving orgasm. Improving arousal and lubrication can help. Like men, women can experience anxiety and relationship issues due to sexual dysfunction.
Isolated systolic hypertension occurs when the top number of a blood pressure reading (systolic blood pressure) is high and the bottom number (diastolic blood pressure) is normal. Isolated systolic hypertension is most common along older adults, but is also found in young and middle-aged adults. It’s important for patients with isolated systolic hypertension to work with their doctors to determine the best possible treatment to achieve a healthy blood pressure and reduce risk of complications.
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What is a normal blood pressure? Blood pressure is essential to life because it forces the blood around the body, delivering all the nutrients it needs. Here, we explain how to take your blood pressure, what the readings mean, and what counts as low, high, and normal. The article also offers some tips on how to maintain healthy blood pressure. Read now